Afghanistan, a country of roughly 22.5 million people, is in a truly desperate situation. Out of every 1000 children born, 257 die before turning five. Seventy-eight percent of the population live in rural areas, of which only 11% have access to drinking water, and a mere 8% have access to sanitation. Seventy percent of the entire population is malnourished. Men will live an average of 43 years, and women just six additional months. The adult literacy rate is 36%, the female and male rates at 21% and 51%, respectively. Just four years ago, in 1999, the per capita income was US$178.